Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian cyst  is one of the common cyst types in our country. Elements referred to as cysts are things that contain fluid surrounded by a tissue called a cyst wall. These cysts can occur in almost any tissue in our body. Cysts formed in the ovaries may not be easily detected immediately. Compared to other cysts, ovarian cysts give less symptoms because they do not affect the functions in the body. We would like to give information about what is an ovarian cyst and how exactly it affects our body and what dangers it causes.

What is an Ovarian Cyst?

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They are located in the lower abdomen on either side of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce eggs as well as the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs or pockets on or on the surface of the ovary. Women have two ovaries on either side of the uterus, each about the size and shape of an almond. Eggs that develop and mature in the ovaries; It is released in monthly cycles during childbearing years.

It is possible to encounter ovarian cysts from time to time in many women. Most uterine cysts cause little or no discomfort. However, it is harmless. It can usually disappear without treatment within a few months. But ovarian cysts, especially those that have ruptured or are about to burst, can cause serious symptoms.

Ovarian Cyst Symptoms

Ovarian cyst symptom may not always be easy to follow. These are usually found and diagnosed at routine check-ups. Some patients may have thoughts such as whether the ovarian cyst is obvious from the outside . However, we can say that there is no visible swelling from the outside. Uterine cysts often do not cause any symptoms. However, symptoms may occur as the cyst grows. Symptoms may include:

  • Abdominal bloating or swelling
  • painful bowel movements
  • Pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle
  • painful intercourse
  • Pain in the lower back or thigh area
  • breast tenderness
  • Nausea and vomiting

Severe symptoms of an ovarian cyst that requires immediate medical attention include:

  • severe or sharp pelvic pain
  • Fire
  • faintness or dizziness
  • rapid breathing

For the question of whether ovarian cyst causes pain, we cannot directly say that it causes pain in this region. However, we can say that people may experience pain in certain parts of their body. The most important reason why ovarian cysts are so difficult to diagnose is that they are extremely insidious. The issue of whether the ovarian cyst ruptures is also important. Cysts larger than 4 cm in diameter may experience bursting from time to time. In this case, people generally have bleeding problems.

What Are Ovarian Cysts?

Most ovarian cysts develop as a result of the menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of ovarian cysts  are much less common.

Functional Cysts

Your ovaries normally develop cyst-like structures called follicles each month. Follicles produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone and release an egg when you ovulate. If a normal monthly follicle continues to grow, it is known as a functional cyst. There are two types of functional cysts:

  • Follicular cyst: In the middle of your menstrual cycle (day 14 for a 28-day woman), an egg comes out of the follicle and moves down the fallopian tube. A follicular cyst starts when the follicle does not rupture or release its egg but continues to grow.
  • Corpus luteum cyst: When a follicle releases its egg, it starts producing estrogen and progesterone to get pregnant. This follicle is called the corpus luteum. Sometimes fluid builds up inside the follicle and causes the corpus luteum to turn into a cyst.

Functional cysts are usually harmless. It rarely causes pain and usually goes away on its own within two or three menstrual cycles.

Other Ovarian Cysts

Types of cysts that are not related to the normal function of your menstrual cycle are as follows:

  • Dermoid cysts: Dermoid cysts are the most common ovarian cysts in patients aged 20-40 years and most of them are benign. These ovarian cysts, also called teratomas, usually contain tissues from other organ systems such as fat, hair tissue and teeth.
  • As dermoid cysts can be followed without treatment, surgical treatment can also be applied because they involve the risk of turning around.
  • Cystadenomas: These develop on the surface of an ovary and may be filled with watery or mucous material.
  • These develop as a result of a condition in which uterine endometrial cells grow outside of your uterus (endometriosis). Some of the tissue may attach to your ovary and form a growth.
  • Chocolate cyst associated with this condition can be seen in the ovaries of patients with endometriosis. Surgical treatment can be applied in patients with pain and pelvic pressure.

Information about the possibilities of laparoscopic/robotic surgery can be obtained from a gynecological oncology specialist with sufficient surgical experience in the treatment of ovarian cysts. Mostly, it is possible to preserve ovarian functions by removing the cysts only. Dermoid cysts and cystadenomas may enlarge, causing the ovary to become displaced. This increases the likelihood of painful twisting of the ovary, called ovarian torsion. Ovarian torsion can also cause reduced or stopped blood flow to the ovary.

What Causes Ovarian Cyst?

What causes ovarian cyst and what are the risk factors are among the issues that must be emphasized. The most important causes of ovarian cyst formation are;

  • Hormonal problems: Hormonal disorders are one of the most common risks in cyst formation. Hormone disorders such as insulin, male hormone, and thyroid are the main cause of cysts usually seen in polycystic ovary (PCOS) patients.
  • Pregnancy: In some cases, the cyst that forms when you ovulate remains in your ovary throughout your pregnancy.
  • Endometriosis: This condition causes uterine endometrial cells to grow outside of your uterus. Some of the tissue may adhere to your ovary and form a cyst with tissue growth.
  • A severe pelvic infection: Any pelvic infection may cause cysts.
  • A previous ovarian cyst: If there is any ovarian cyst in the patient’s history, cyst formation can be observed again, even after treatment.

Ovarian Cyst Diagnosis

The diagnosis of ovarian cyst is important in order to treat these cysts and prevent further problems. Many different methods and tests are used for diagnosis. Since the answer to the question of whether an ovarian cyst hurts is negative, it is unlikely that you will feel pain and go to the test and test. In some cases, the cyst that forms when you ovulate remains in your ovary throughout your pregnancy.

If your gynecologist thinks you may have an ovarian cyst or if you show any symptoms; An ultrasound and vaginal examination or various blood tests can confirm the suspicion of a cyst. Because most cysts disappear after a few weeks or months, your gynecologist may not recommend a treatment plan right away. Instead, he may repeat the ultrasound test periodically to check and monitor your condition. If your condition does not change or the cyst increases in size, your gynecologist will order additional tests to identify other causes of your symptoms. These additional tests include:

  • You need to take a pregnancy test (Beta HCG hormone) to make sure you are not pregnant.
  • Hormone level testing (Anti Müllerian, FSH/LH) to check for hormone-related problems such as too much estrogen or progesterone
  • CA-125 test for ovarian cancer screening

However, having values ​​outside the reference range in these tests does not necessarily mean you have cancer. Your test results that are higher or lower than the reference range can also be caused by non-cancerous conditions, such as:

Ovarian Cyst Treatment

The best answer to the question of how to pass the ovarian cyst is to naturally treat the cysts. After the diagnosis of cysts, it is determined whether they are especially benign or malignant. Surgical sampling is also provided to determine whether it is benign or not. If the cysts are benign, only this cyst is removed and there is no need for any further operation. However, if the cyst is found to be malignant, standard cancer treatments are applied after surgical intervention.

In cyst treatments, conditions such as whether the patient wants to have a child or not are taken into account. However, the operation is performed by taking into account the age, size of the cyst, location and many other details. Robotic ovarian cyst operations have become very popular in recent years. Treatment of ovarian cysts consists of operations with a very high success rate.

Ovarian Cyst Surgery

Ovarian cyst surgery operations are important operations that require expertise. These operations should be performed by specialist doctors in the field. Dr. Our teacher Derman Başaran supports you on many issues, especially the treatment of ovarian cysts. It has a particularly high success rate with robotic surgery operations. It will be beneficial for you to apply to our specialist doctor without wasting time in cases of bleeding due to bursting of ovarian cysts .

Do ovarian cysts recur?

Controls continue for the first 6 months after treatment. Cysts, which are usually malignant, carry the risk of recurrence.

Is robotic surgery used in the treatment of ovarian cyst?

In the treatment of ovarian cysts, robotic surgery can be applied and successful results can be obtained.

Does ovarian cyst go away on its own?

In some ovarian cysts, the cyst may pass spontaneously within 1.5-2 months.

What happens if ovarian cysts are not treated or removed?

When ovarian cysts are not treated, they cause many health problems, especially infertility. However, benign cysts can also turn into malignant cysts over time.

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