Uterine Cancer

What is uterine cancer  and what are its symptoms are extremely important and need to be addressed. Because it has a very high rate among cancer types seen in women. With the early diagnosis of uterine cancers, the incidence of which increases with advancing age, the chance of treatment is also high. In general, early diagnosis in cancer types increases the rate of treatment and recovery. In order to diagnose cancer types, people should first  get information about cancer types  and especially their symptoms.

What is Uterine Cancer (Endometrium)?

Endometrial cancer , sometimes directly called uterine cancer, is a tumor that originates in the lining of the uterine wall. It is the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs. However, it is often found at an early stage and can be completely treated surgically. In order to understand how endometrial cancer develops, it is primarily useful to understand the structure of the uterus.

The uterus is the organ located at the top of the vagina and is responsible for menstrual bleeding during the reproductive period and carrying the fetus during pregnancy. The endometrium or the lining of the uterus forms the inner layer of the uterus and thins out after menopause and loses its function with the end of menstrual bleeding.

Under normal conditions, cells grow and divide in a certain order in order for people to live a healthy life, and then die when they complete their function. However, some cells in our body, especially the uterus, do not die and continue to grow uncontrollably even though they have completed their functions. This uncontrolled growth also damages neighboring tissues and turns into cancer cells over time.

What are the Causes of Uterine Cancer?

The cause of uterine cancer is that the female hormone estrogen in the body has been above normal levels for a long time. Estrogens thicken the lining of the uterus and contribute to cancerization there. The main reason for excess estrogen in the body is excessive internal production, but sometimes this situation may occur due to external drugs. For those wondering what causes uterine cancer,  the main reasons are;

  • Excess estrogens given externally
  • Causes of an excess of estrogen from the inside
  • hereditary factors

What Are the Symptoms of Uterine Cancer?

The most common symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding. In a woman who is still having menstrual periods, abnormal bleeding manifests as bleeding between periods or heavy menstrual bleeding. In a postmenopausal woman, any vaginal bleeding is considered abnormal, even if it’s just a drop of blood. This is especially true for women who are not taking menopausal hormone therapy. In addition, the  symptoms of uterine cancer are  as follows;

Women taking menopausal hormone therapy usually have vaginal bleeding during the first few months of treatment. However, if you are on hormone therapy and you have bleeding, you should consult your doctor or nurse. Although the majority of endometrial cancer cases are seen after menopause, abnormal bleeding at all ages should be carefully evaluated. Abnormal uterine bleeding ( Increased uterine bleeding ). The diagnosis of endometrial cancer is made  by taking a biopsy from the uterine wall. As mentioned above, this cancer is mostly detected at an early stage and with appropriate surgical treatment, the majority of cases can be cured without the need for additional treatment. 

Uterine Cancer Diagnosis Method

The diagnosis of uterine cancer is made by taking a biopsy of the uterine wall. Frequently preferred tests and diagnostic methods for its diagnosis are as follows;

  • Tissue sampling for histopathology – Endometrial carcinoma is a histological diagnosis based on characteristic findings in an endometrial biopsy, curettage, or hysterectomy specimen.
  • Endometrial biopsy is the most commonly used test for endometrial cancer and gives accurate results in postmenopausal women. It can be done in the doctor’s office. A very thin, flexible tube is inserted through the cervix into the uterus. A small amount of endometrium is then removed from the tube using aspiration. The results are sent to the pathology and the result is awaited.

Uterine Cancer Stages

Once endometrial cancer is diagnosed, the next step is to determine its stage. Staging is a system used to identify the spread of a cancer. The stages of uterine cancer  are one of the factors that determine the initiation of treatment and, more importantly, the success of the treatment. Therefore, after the diagnosis of cancer, its stage is determined. The stages in endometrial cancer and the characteristics of these stages are as follows;

  • Stage 1: At this stage, the cancer is generally only found in the uterine region and has not spread. It is one of the stages with the highest success rate in treatment.
  • Stage 2: In this stage, in addition to the uterus, the tumorous tissue spreads to the supporting connective tissues of the cervix.
  • Stage 3: Unfortunately, at this stage, the tumor tissue has spread outside the uterus. It can spread to the lymph nodes.
  • Stage 4: At this stage, the cancer may have spread to even the most distant organs. It is the stage with the lowest success rate in treatment. Uterine cancer stage 4 life expectancy  is predicted to be 20% for 5 years.

Whether there are signs that the cancer has spread to other organs (this can be determined by physical examination, magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis [MRI], chest X-ray, or other imaging tests)

Uterine Cancer Treatment Methods

The first treatment method for the treatment of uterine cancer  is surgical treatments. Surgery – Surgery is usually done to determine how deeply the cancer has invaded the muscular wall of the uterus. Cancer can also be treated by removing the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. The surgery is done in the operating room with general anesthesia, and most women stay in the hospital for a few days after the surgery.

Laparoscopic/Robotic Surgery

Uterine cancer  has shown a successful treatment process with robotic surgery in recent years. Minimally invasive surgery offers significant healing advantages compared to conventional open surgery. Studies have shown that endometrial cancer surgery can be safely performed laparoscopically or robotically.

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

Recent studies on the sampling of lymph node nodes, which are a part of endometrial cancer surgery, have shown that removing the first lymph nodes from which the tumor is shed, rather than removing all lymph nodes, carries less surgical risk for patients.

Expert Selection in Uterine Cancer

Both laparoscopic/robotic surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures should be performed by trained gynecologic oncology surgeons. The standard surgical treatment consists of removal of the uterus and ovaries and sampling of the lymph nodes. In this surgical treatment, which requires specialized training, the best results can be offered by gynecological oncology surgeons.

Dr. Derman Başaran is a physician who has been dealing with only female cancers and related conditions for more than 10 years and has received training and served in top-level institutions both at home and abroad. When the specialist physicians in a clinic only deal with female cancers, the care and treatment success of the patients is at the highest level. For the most successful results in the treatment of your disease, make sure that there are gynecological oncology surgery specialists in the center where you are treated. If you want to have a good treatment process for uterine cancer  in Ankara, you can talk to our specialist.

 CLICK HERE to make an appointment for the diagnosis and treatment of Uterine Cancer .

What is Ovarian Cancer?

Ovarian or ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer affecting the female reproductive organs. Although it is usually seen in women between the ages of 50-65, it can affect women of any age.

Ovarian cancer has no specific symptoms, it is usually detected during routine controls or during the investigation of patients with complaints of abdominal swelling, weakness and weight loss. It is recommended that these patients be referred to gynecological oncology surgeons after diagnosis, because studies have proven that patients get the best results when treated with these physicians.

Treatment of ovarian cancer often requires extensive surgery, and patients may need additional treatment after surgery.

Dr.Derman Başaran is a physician who has been dealing only with women’s cancers and related conditions for more than 10 years and has received training and served in top-level institutions both at home and abroad. When the specialist physicians in a clinic only deal with female cancers, the care and treatment success of the patients is at the highest level. For the most successful results in the treatment of your disease, make sure that there are gynecological oncology surgery specialists in the center where you are treated.

HIPEC (Hot Chemotherapy)

Studies have shown that in some of the patients with ovarian cancer, oncological outcomes in these patients are better when warm chemotherapy is applied to the abdomen during surgery. It is the job of gynecological oncology surgeons to determine which patient group will benefit from this treatment.

Genetic Predisposition Tests (BRCA And Others)

Ovarian cancer, like most cancers, is a disease with genetic origins, however, it is also inherited in some patient groups. In individuals with a family history of diseases such as ovarian, breast, and colon cancer, genetic tests can be performed to detect BRCA1, BRCA2 and other risk-increasing conditions, and risk-reducing surgery can be planned.

Cervical Cancer (Cervix)

Cervical cancer (cervix)  is a type of cancer that occurs in the cells of the cervix, which is the lower part of the cervix that connects to the vagina. Various strains of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, are involved in causing most cervical cancers.

You can reach my article about HVP Virus infection at   https://drdermanbasaran.com/hpv-virusu-infectionu/  .

Cervical Cancer Symptoms

Cervical cancer symptoms  sometimes do not show any symptoms until the last stage. Cervical cancer may not have any symptoms in its early stages. However, as the tumor grows in size, it may cause vaginal bleeding during sexual intercourse, between menstruation or after menopause. Watery, bloody vaginal discharge that can be heavy and have a foul odor can also be a sign of cervical cancer. These complaints are not specific to cervical cancer, if you have such a complaint, it would be beneficial to consult a doctor. Apart from this,  the symptoms of cervical cancer ;

  • pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pain in the genital area, leg and back
  • Loss of appetite and weight, fatigue
  • Smelly discharge and vaginal discomfort
  • pain when urinating
  • Swelling in one leg

What Are the Types of Cervical Cancer?

There are types of cervical cancer  and knowing these types is important in the treatment process. Depending on the type of cancer, the disease is intervened. The two known species are:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of cervical cancer begins in the thin, flat cells (squamous cells) that line the outer part of the cervix that protrudes into the vagina. Most cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This type of cervical cancer begins in the colon-shaped glandular cells that line the cervical canal.

Sometimes, both cell types cause cervical cancer. Rarely, cancer occurs in other cells in the cervix.

How Is Cervical Cancer Treated?

Cervical cancer treatment  is carried out according to the spread of the cancer, its stage and the health status of the person. Treatment methods applied according to these factors;

Surgical

In cervical cancer, a surgery to remove the tumor mass can be performed. Surgery can be done in a variety of ways. Extensive removal of the cervix, uterus (womb) and upper part of the vagina with surrounding tissue. (Radical Hysterectomy) Extensive removal of the cervix and upper part of the vagina with surrounding tissue while preserving the uterus.

Radiotherapy

It is the killing of tumor cells using radiation therapy.

Chemotherapy

In the treatment of patients with cervical cancer, chemotherapy is given to a lesser extent in addition to radiation therapy.

What are Cervical Cancer Risk Factors?

When the risk factors for cervical cancer are  known, the risk of developing this cancer decreases. Therefore, women need to know what causes this type of cancer and what the risk factors are. Cervical cancer causes  and risk factors are as follows;

  • Many sexual partners: Your chance of contracting HPV is directly proportional to the number of sexual partners you and your partner have.
  • Early sexual activity: Having sex at an early age increases your risk of HPV.
  • Other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Having other STIs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV/AIDS increases your risk of HPV.
  • A weakened immune system. If your immune system and health are weakened, you may be more likely to develop cervical cancer.
  • To smoke. Smoking is associated with squamous cell cervical cancer.
  • Exposure to a miscarriage prevention drug. If you took a medicine called diethylstilbestrol (DES) while pregnant, your risk of cervical cancer called clear cell adenocarcinoma may be increased.

How Can You Prevent Cervical Cancer?

Service cancer  can be prevented or at least reduced risk factors by some measures. U measures;

  • Ask your doctor about the HPV vaccine. Getting the vaccine to prevent HPV infection can reduce your risk of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers. You should ask your doctor if the HPV vaccine is right for you.
  • Get routine Pap tests. Pap tests detect cervical precancerous conditions, so they can be monitored or treated to prevent cervical cancer. Most medical organizations recommend starting routine Pap tests at age 21 and repeating them every few years.
  • Have safe sex. Reduce your risk of cervical cancer by taking precautions to prevent sexually transmitted infections, such as using a condom with every sexual intercourse and limiting the number of sexual partners.
  • Do not smoke. If you don’t smoke, don’t start. If you smoke, talk to your doctor about strategies to help you quit.

Other Things to Know

During the treatment of cervical cancer, you are expected to strictly follow the recommendations and warnings of your doctor. Apart from this, you should share with your doctor every point you have about your treatment and possible side effects.

Cancer treatment is a special situation that can be very tiring for both patients and physicians, and current information indicates that cervical cancer treatment by Gynecological Oncology Surgery Specialists, who have received special training in this regard, gives the best results.

Dr. Derman Başaran is a physician who has been dealing with only female cancers and related conditions for more than 10 years and has received training and served in top-level institutions both at home and abroad.

When the specialist physicians in a clinic only deal with female cancers, the care and treatment success of the patients is at the highest level. For the most successful results in the treatment of your disease, make sure that there are gynecological oncology surgery specialists in the center where you are treated.

Vulvar Cancer

The vulva is  the name given to the outermost part of the female genitals, and vulvar cancer originates from this area. Vulvar cancer usually presents as an itchy and burning swelling or sore. Although it can be seen at any age, it is a disease of advanced age. In the treatment of vulvar cancer, it is aimed to remove some healthy tissue along with the tumor and to obtain a solid surgical margin. Depending on the tumor size and the depth of the tumor, it may also be necessary to remove the lymph nodes on the affected side.

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

Recent studies in the sampling of lymph node glands, which are a part of vulvar cancer surgery, have shown that removing the first lymph nodes from which the tumor is shed, rather than removing all lymph nodes, carries less surgical risk for patients. This procedure should be performed by experienced gynecological oncology surgeons.

Dr.Derman Başaran is a physician who has been dealing only with women’s cancers and related conditions for more than 10 years and has received training and served in top-level institutions both at home and abroad. When the specialist physicians in a clinic only deal with female cancers, the care and treatment success of the patients is at the highest level. For the most successful results in the treatment of your disease, make sure that there are gynecological oncology surgery specialists in the center where you are treated.

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